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The Ritual Dimension of Christianity: Baptism & Holy Eucharist (The Lord’s Supper)


The Ritual Dimension Of Christianity: Baptism and Holy Eucharist (The Lord’s Supper)


Baptism is a sacrament of the Christian Church that involves water as a visible sign of God’s Grace. While there are differences in understanding and practice among different Christian traditions, Baptism is generally understood to be an outward symbol of an inward reality: the believer’s identification with Christ’s death, burial, and resurrection (Romans 6:3-5). Baptism symbolizes the believer’s identification with Christ and their new life in Him; the essential elements of the sacrament remain the same.

 Baptismal Imagery in the Early Christianity:

There is no way I can write about the Baptism ritual in early Christianity without recourse to Robin M. Jensen’s book. [1] Jensen wrote on texts, art, architecture, and liturgy of the Baptismal ritual. Typological interpretation dominated the early Christian understanding of Baptism. Stories drawn from the Old Testament narrative or the life of Jesus provided a pattern replicated in Baptism. Visual images and the decoration of ritual space in early Christian places of worship “express and transmit certain theological and sacramental values or themes” regarding Baptism.

In Baptism, fulfilling the promise anticipated in that pattern becomes a reality for the recipient of the rite. The five core motifs provided by Jensen encapsulate or categorize the early Christian understanding of Baptism.

First, Baptism cleansed from sin and sickness, “washing away external impurities and internal ones[2].” The story of Christian Baptism begins with John the Baptist’s baptizing Jesus in the Jordan River (Matt 3; Mark 1; Luke 3), an event that is seen as “the source, authorization, and paradigm for Christian baptism.” Jensen explores how early Christian writers understood this event in the life of Jesus and other biblical stories associated with water: the narratives of destructive waters (the flood or the drowning of Pharaoh’s armies in the Red Sea) and healing waters (Naaman the Syrian, miracle by the pool of Bethesda). These narratives augmented the early Christians’ theology of Baptism and its association with purification and cleansing. The rituals of anointing the body and water immersion best symbolized these concepts.

Second, Baptism symbolized entrance into the community of saints, the Church. In Baptism, Christians become part of an “exclusive group that functions as a family and provides them with spiritual nurture and support[3].” In early Christianity, joining an illicit sect required renouncing Roman gods and forming a new identity. In some circumstances, refusing to honor Roman gods was considered sedition or treason[4]. Early Christians, therefore, appealed to specific key texts or metaphors to make Baptism a ritual of incorporation or initiation into the Christian community, as such a new community for the neophytes. Galatians 3:28 and other passages about adoption into God’s family were critical to undergirding this theology. This motif represents the homiletical usage of many New Testament images of communities (e.g., athletes, soldiers) and baptism rituals (the participation of sponsors, making the sign of the cross, and giving the holy kiss to new Christians).

Third, Baptism conveyed the gift of the Spirit and his illuminating and sanctifying roles. The baptismal gift of the Holy Spirit was essential for Baptism and was transmitted through a specific rite, separate from the water bath but performed alongside it. In the book of Acts, the early Church understood the apostles’ invitation to repent and receive the Holy Spirit through Baptism (Acts 2:38) as an essential element of the ritual of Baptism. Despite the importance of oil and anointing in the later tradition, “a survey of the earliest literature offers little evidence for baptismal anointing.” [5] The laying on of hands was also part of the ritual in some areas. By the fourth century, however, the rite of Baptism was elaborated to include one or any combination of other actions: the imposition of hands, anointing with oil, and sealing with the sign of the cross. [6] Thus, the use of oil, candles, and fire during the ritual of Baptism and the depiction of a dove on walls of baptisteries were symbols associated with a baptismal theology of the Holy Spirit who sanctifies and illuminates the lives of new Christians.

Fourth, the new Christian experienced death (to self) and rebirth in being baptized. Two key New Testament texts are crucial to this aspect of Baptism: Rom 6:5, which speaks of one’s participation in Christ’s death and resurrection, and John 3:3–5, which introduces the concept of new birth. The spaces of Baptism were constructed sometimes to allude to the grave (association with Jesus’ death and resurrection) and the maternal womb (for the new birth). The ritual practices of triple immersion, the stripping of candidates, and the re-clothing in white garments of neophytes supported the idea of shedding the older adult and putting on Christ. Baptism at Easter emphasized the new believer’s participation in Christ’s passion while also symbolizing rebirth and future resurrection. [7]

Fifth, Baptism proclaimed the eschatological hope for restoration in the new creation. This motif has a dimension that transcends person and place in which Baptism becomes an eschatological event, symbolizing the restoration of the lost paradise. The biblical imagery of Christ as the second Adam and the crossing of the Jordan River influenced this motif. Jensen understands that the construction of baptismal fonts in an octagonal shape (given the symbolic significance of the number eight in the early Church) alluded to the eschatological regeneration of creation. [8]

In each case, not merely text but also art, architecture, and ritual confirm these understandings of Baptism. For example, artistic representations of Jesus healing the paralytic appear in the art surrounding some baptismal fonts, reinforcing the motif of Baptism as cleansing from sickness. [9] Similarly, the shape of many baptisteries reinforces the fifth motif. Those shaped like a cross or tomb represented death to self, while those shaped like a womb emphasized the new birth. Ritually, such practices as anointing the newly baptized believer with oil buttressed the third motif’s emphasis on the reception of the Holy Spirit. In the early Church, exegesis, theological interpretation, artistic representation, and ritual symbolism all worked together to convey the meaning of Baptism.

In Baptismal Imagery in Early Christianity, Robin Jensen demonstrates that early Christian leaders took a different approach to Baptism than today’s Church leaders. They understood that Scripture, theology, and (ritual) practice all combined to convey meaning in church life.

Generally, Here are some critical points to consider when discussing Baptism:

 Mode of Baptism: 

Christian traditions practice Baptism differently; some practice immersion, where the believer is fully immersed in water, while others practice pouring or sprinkling. While the mode of Baptism may vary, the essential elements of the sacrament remain the same. While Baptism is typically performed through the immersion or pouring of water, there is some variation in the mode of Baptism between different Christian traditions. For example, some traditions practice sprinkling or pouring water rather than immersion; others use different elements, such as oil or wine, as part of the sacrament. Some traditions, such as the Eastern Orthodox Church, practice triple immersion, where the believer is fully immersed in water three times. Others, such as some Protestant denominations, practice pouring or sprinkling of water. The mode of Baptism is a matter of theological debate, with some believing that immersion is the only valid mode, while others view pouring or sprinkling as equally valid.

Significance of Baptism:

Baptism symbolizes the believer’s identification with Christ’s death, burial, and resurrection. Through Baptism, believers publicly profess their faith in Christ and acknowledge Him as their Lord and Savior. Baptism also signifies the washing away sin and the believer’s new life in Christ.

 Infant Baptism:

Some Christian traditions practice infant baptism, in which babies are baptized as a sign of their inclusion in the covenant community of the Church. Supporters of infant baptism argue that it signifies God’s Grace and the child’s future decision to follow Christ. Others believe that Baptism should only be administered to those who consciously decide to follow Christ.

Believer’s Baptism:

Believer’s Baptism, on the other hand, is the practice of baptizing only those who consciously decide to follow Christ. A believer’s Baptism is typically administered through immersion and is seen as a public profession of faith and a symbol of the believer’s new life in Christ.

Baptism and Salvation: 

While Baptism is an essential symbol of the believer’s identification with Christ, it is unnecessary for salvation. Christians differ in their understanding of the relationship between Baptism and salvation, with some believing baptism is necessary for salvation. In contrast, others believe that salvation is by Grace through faith alone.

Baptism as a Means of Grace: 

Some Christian traditions view Baptism as a means of Grace, in which God imparts His Grace to the believer through the sacrament. This understanding of Baptism emphasizes the role of God’s Grace in the sacrament and the importance of Baptism as a part of the believer’s spiritual growth and development.

Baptism and the Holy Spirit:

Baptism is often associated with the Holy Spirit, as the Spirit is seen as the one who empowers and guides the believer in their new life in Christ. In some Christian traditions, the sacrament of confirmation is seen as a way of strengthening the believer’s connection to the Holy Spirit and their ongoing spiritual growth.

Baptismal Regeneration:

Some Christians believe Baptism is necessary for salvation and that the sacrament can regenerate the believer’s soul. This understanding of Baptism, known as baptismal regeneration, is controversial and is not accepted by all Christian traditions.


In some cases, baptized individuals as infants may choose to be baptized again as adults to profess their faith and commitment to Christ publicly. Some Christian traditions permit and encourage re-baptism, while others view it as unnecessary or problematic. Re-baptism is discouraged or not allowed in some Christian traditions, such as the Baptist Church. This is because they believe Baptism is a one-time event representing the believer’s initial acceptance of Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. However, re-baptism may be allowed in other Christian traditions, such as the Eastern Orthodox Church, if the believer has fallen away from the faith and later returns.

Baptism and the Church: 

Baptism is not just an individual act but also an act that joins the believer with the larger Christian community. Through Baptism, the believer is incorporated into the Church and becomes a part of the body of Christ. Baptism is an act of unity, as it brings together people of different backgrounds, races, and cultures into one faith community. Through Baptism, the believer becomes a part of the larger Christian community, and the Church acknowledges and affirms the believer’s faith and commitment.

Baptism and Symbolism:

Baptism is rich in symbolism, with water symbolizing purification, new life, and the washing away of sins. The immersion or water pouring symbolizes dying, rising with Christ, and being born again into a new life in Him. Each aspect of the sacrament has significant meaning. The water used in Baptism symbolizes purification and cleansing and represents the new life that comes with being born again in Christ. The immersion or water pouring symbolizes dying, rising with Christ, and being born again into a new life in Him.

Infant Baptism: 

Baptizing infants is common in some Christian traditions, including the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Protestant denominations. While others only baptize believers who have made a personal profession of faith. Infant baptism is seen as incorporating children into the Church and affirming God’s Grace and love for them, even before they can understand and profess their faith. The practice is based on the belief that Baptism is a sign of God’s Grace and love and that children should be included in the faith community from a young age. The parents and godparents of the child make promises to raise the child in the faith and teach them about Jesus.

Baptism and Evangelism:

Baptism is often used as an opportunity for evangelism and sharing the Gospel message. In some Christian traditions, Baptism is viewed as a public proclamation of one’s faith in Christ and a witness to others of God’s saving Grace. When someone is baptized, it is a public proclamation of their faith in Christ and a witness to others of God’s saving Grace. This can be a powerful tool for evangelism and inspire others to explore the Christian faith and consider their relationship with God.

Baptism and Forgiveness of Sins: 

Many Christians believe Baptism is necessary to forgive sins. They base this belief on passages in the Bible, such as Acts 2:38, which says, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins.” While some Christians believe Baptism is essential for salvation, others view it as a symbolic act demonstrating a believer’s faith.

Baptism and Confirmation: 

In some Christian traditions, such as the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, Baptism is followed by the sacrament of confirmation. Confirmation is a rite of passage where the individual publicly affirms their faith and receives a bishop or priest’s laying on of hands. It strengthens the Holy Spirit and a deepening commitment to follow Christ.

Baptism and Unity: 

Despite differences in belief and practice surrounding Baptism, it ultimately unites Christians across denominational lines. Baptism is a reminder that all believers are one in Christ and part of the larger body of Christ. As the Apostle Paul writes in 1 Corinthians 12:13, “For we were all baptized by one Spirit to form one body—whether Jews or Gentiles, slave or free—and we were all given the one Spirit to drink.”

Overall, Baptism is an essential and meaningful sacrament of the Christian Church, and its significance is recognized and celebrated in various ways by different Christian traditions. Baptism is an essential sacrament in the Christian faith, and various beliefs and practices surround it within different Christian traditions. However, at its core, Baptism represents a public proclamation of faith in Jesus Christ and unity that joins the believer with the larger Christian community.

All believers must never take Baptism for granted. It is not only a responsibility but also an incredible privilege. As Jesus’ public ministry did not begin until after His Baptism, Baptism is a necessary threshold for each Christian believer to cross into a fruitful service unto God.

 Holy Eucharist (The Lord’s Supper):

The Lord’s Supper, also known as Communion or the Eucharist, is a sacrament practiced by Christians to commemorate Jesus Christ’s last Supper with His disciples.

Eucharist is the earliest title for the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ. It is based upon the eucharistic or giving of thanks with which our Lord set apart the Bread and wine at the Last Supper as memorials of Himself (Mt 26:27, Lk 22:17, 19, 1 Co 11:24). The name Lord’s Supper, though legitimately derived from 1 Co 11:20, is not there applied to the sacrament itself, but to the Love-feast, a meal commemorating the Last Supper, and not yet separated from the Eucharist when St. Paul wrote.

The Lord’s Supper is not only a sign of the love that Christians ought to have among themselves one to another but rather it is a Sacrament of their Redemption by Christ’s death: insomuch that to such as rightly, worthily and with faith, receive the same, the Bread is a partaking of the Body of Christ; and likewise the Cup of Blessing (Wine) is a partaking of the Blood of Christ. The sacrificial character of the Eucharist is involved in the declaration that the Bread broken is a communion of the body, the cup of blessing a communion of the blood of Christ (1 Co 10:16). Transubstantiation is the word for the change of the substance of Bread and Wine in the Lord’s Supper. The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the Supper only in a heavenly and spiritual manner. And the meaning whereby the Body of Christ is received and eaten in the Supper is Faith. The Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper was not by Christ’s ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted, or worshipped.

 Here are some points to consider regarding the Lord’s Supper:


Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper during his last meal with his disciples before his crucifixion. He took Bread and wine, blessed them, and gave them to his disciples, saying, “This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me” (Luke 22:19).


The Lord’s Supper commemorates Jesus’ death and resurrection. It is a way for Christians to remember and celebrate the sacrifice that Jesus made on the cross for the forgiveness of sins.


The Bread and wine in the Lord’s Supper symbolize Jesus’ body and blood. They represent the broken body and spilled blood of Jesus, which he willingly offered as a sacrifice for the sins of humanity.


Some Christian denominations, such as the Roman Catholic Church, believe in the doctrine of Transubstantiation. This doctrine holds that during the Eucharist, the Bread and wine are transformed into the actual body and blood of Jesus Christ.

Real Presence: 

Other Christian denominations, such as the Anglican Communion and the Lutheran Church, believe in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. While they do not believe in Transubstantiation, they believe Christ is truly present in the Bread and wine.

Communal Meal: 

In some Christian traditions, such as the Orthodox Church, the Lord’s Supper is celebrated as a communal meal. It is a time of fellowship and unity with one another in Christ.


The Lord’s Supper frequency varies among Christian traditions. Some churches celebrate it weekly, while others celebrate it monthly or on special occasions.


Many churches have a time of preparation before the Lord’s Supper, where believers examine themselves and repent of any sins. This is based on the instruction in 1 Corinthians 11:28, which says, “Everyone ought to examine themselves before they eat of the bread and drink from the cup.”


The Lord’s Supper symbolizes the unity of the Church, as believers partake of the same Bread and wine in remembrance of Christ’s sacrifice. As Paul writes in 1 Corinthians 10:17, “Because there is one loaf, we, who are many, are one body, for we all share the one loaf.”

Communion with Christ: 

The Lord’s Supper is also a means of communion with Christ. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they are reminded of their union with Christ and his ongoing presence.

Spiritual Nourishment: 

The Lord’s Supper is also seen as a spiritual nourishment for believers. Just as physical food nourishes the body, the spiritual food of the Lord’s Supper nourishes the soul.

Eschatological Significance: 

The Lord’s Supper also has eschatological significance. It is a foretaste of the heavenly banquet that awaits believers in the kingdom of God.

Participation in the life of Christ: 

The Lord’s Supper is a way for believers to participate in the life of Christ. As they partake of the Bread and wine, they are reminded of Christ’s sacrificial love and are called to imitate him in their own lives.

Call to Service: 

The Lord’s Supper is also a call to service. As believers are reminded of Christ’s sacrificial love, they are called to follow his example and serve others in his name.

Ecumenical Significance: 

The Lord’s Supper also has ecumenical significance. While there are differences among Christian denominations regarding the nature and practice of the Eucharist, it remains a unifying practice that brings Christians together in their shared faith in Jesus Christ.

Historical Significance: 

Christians have practiced the Lord’s Supper for over two thousand years, and it has played a significant role in the history of Christianity. It has been celebrated in diverse cultural contexts and has undergone changes in practice and understanding over time.

Remembrance of Christ’s Sacrifice: 

The Lord’s Supper reminds us of Christ’s sacrifice on the cross for the forgiveness of sins. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they remember Christ’s body broken and his blood shed for them.

Invitation to Repentance: 

The Lord’s Supper is also an invitation to repentance. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they are called to examine themselves and confess their sins before God.

Symbol of unity: 

The Lord’s Supper symbolizes unity among believers. As they partake of the same Bread and wine, they are reminded of their shared faith in Christ and their unity as members of the body of Christ.

Expression of Gratitude: 

The Lord’s Supper is also an expression of gratitude. As believers remember Christ’s sacrifice and the forgiveness of sins, they express gratitude to God for his mercy and Grace.

Witness to the World: 

The Lord’s Supper is also a witness to the world. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they witness Christ’s presence and commitment to follow him.

Act of worship: 

The Lord’s Supper is also an act of worship. As believers gather to partake of the Bread and wine, they express their worship and adoration of God.

Participation in the new covenant: 

The Lord’s Supper is participating in the new covenant that Christ established through his death and resurrection. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they remember Christ’s words at the Last Supper: “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you” (Luke 22:20).

Celebration of Salvation: 

The Lord’s Supper celebrates salvation. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they celebrate the salvation that Christ has accomplished through his death and resurrection.

Opportunity for Reflection: 

The Lord’s Supper allows believers to reflect on their faith and relationship with God. As they partake of the Bread and wine, they can consider their spiritual journey and renew their commitment to follow Christ.

Sign of the kingdom: 

The Lord’s Supper is a sign of the kingdom of God. As believers gather together to partake of the Bread and wine, they anticipate the future banquet that Christ will host when he returns to establish his kingdom on earth.

Reminder of Christ’s Return: The Lord’s Supper reminds us of Christ’s return. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they are reminded of Christ’s promise to return and establish his kingdom on earth.

Expression of Love: 

The Lord’s Supper expresses love. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they express their love for God and one another.

Sign of God’s Grace: 

The Lord’s Supper is a sign of God’s Grace. As believers partake of the Bread and wine, they are reminded of God’s Grace and salvation through Christ.

Declaration of Faith: 

The Lord’s Supper is a declaration of faith. As believers gather to partake of the Bread and wine, they declare their faith in Christ and commitment to follow him.

Sacrament or Ordinance?

Most Christian groups refer to Baptism and the Lord’s Supper as Sacraments, but some Protestants, especially Baptists, have preferred the term Ordinances. More informally, they are sometimes called Rites, Rituals, Ceremonies, or even Celebrations. No one of these terms can claim Biblical usage as precedent, and so it might seem as if there could be no “right” or “Biblical” term to use. This question would be no more than one of semantic preference were it not for some theological associations that have gathered around the term Sacrament or Sacramental over the centuries, associations that some find objectionable. Most Baptists have chosen to refer to Baptism and the Lord’s Supper as Ordinances, not merely as a semantic preference but based on their understanding of the meaning and effect of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper. 

The Origin and Meaning of “Sacrament”: 

It is widely acknowledged that in Latin, Sacramentum originally meant an oath, especially a soldier’s oath of loyalty to his commanding officer. Still, it entered the Christian vocabulary due to its usage to translate the term mustçrion (mystery) in the Latin translation of the New Testament. Nowhere in the New Testament is mustçrion or Sacramentum used to refer to either baptism or the Lord’s Supper, but some early Christians did refer to the Lord’s Supper as a “mystery,” and the category of mystery is still vital in both Orthodox and Catholic understandings of the sacraments. Tertullian seems to have been the first theologian to use the Latin term sacramentum with theological meaning, drawing upon the idea of the oath of loyalty and associating that with “the mystery of God’s salvation” and “the symbols or rites which were associated with this salvation in the life of the church,” namely, the sacraments. Further development of a theology of the sacraments came with Augustine. He is well known for giving the classic definition of a sacrament as an outward and visible sign of inward and invisible grace, but he applied it to formulas such as the Creed and the Lord’s Prayer. As late as the twelfth century, a theologian such as Hugh of St. Victor would enumerate up to thirty sacraments.

The more significant contribution of Augustine to this question is his formulation of the efficacy of the sacraments. In his controversy with the Donatists, those who claimed that the sacraments administered by priests who had collaborated with the Romans under persecution were not valid due to the personal unworthiness of the priests confronted Augustine. In response, Augustine argued that the validity or efficacy of a sacrament depends “on Christ himself, not the merits of either the administrator or recipient.

This view of sacramental efficacy is associated with the Latin phrase, ex opere operato, “on account of the work which is done.” It means that the sacraments not only signify grace but convey the grace they signify. The magisterial Reformers maintained the term “sacrament” and an emphasis on God’s action in them but nuanced the idea of the conveyance of grace. Luther clarified the importance of faith in the proper administration of the sacraments. He calls the mass (or Lord’s Supper) “a promise of the forgiveness of sins made to us by God . . . confirmed by the death of the Son of God.”

McGrath cites Augustine’s work “On Baptism,” which says, “When the words of the gospel administer Baptism, however great the evil of either minister or recipient may be, the sacrament itself is holy on account of the one whose sacrament it is.” But the promise calls for the response of faith, and so Luther says, “Nothing else is needed for a worthy holding of mass than a faith that relies confidently on this promise.” He even cites Augustine to support his view: “‘Believe,’ says Augustine, ‘and you have eaten.” Calvin set the standard for the Reformed tradition by calling the sacraments “signs” and “seals” and arguing for both a divine work in them and a human response. He defines a sacrament as “an outward sign by which the Lord seals on our consciences the promise of his good will toward us to sustain the weakness of our faith; and we, in turn, attest our piety toward him in the presence of the Lord and of his angels and before men.” Contemporary Reformed theologian Michael Horton adopts Calvin’s terms, signs, and seals, as his heading for discussing the sacraments, and argues that the sacraments are “primarily a divine pledge,” but a pledge that creates and confirms the appropriate human response of faith and repentance.

The Contemporary Context and the “Great Divide.” 

Today, opposition to the term sacrament still exists among many Baptists but is weakening some. Stanley Grenz wants to retain “the primacy of the designation ‘ordinance,'” but thinks we may also draw significance from the original meaning of Sacramentum. But regardless of the term used, a significant difference remains regarding what different groups see as happening in baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Leonard Vander Zee calls this the “great divide” in interpretations of the Lord’s Supper and baptism: “On the one side are those for whom the sacramental signs merely point to Christ and invite our faith in him but do not involve any action on God’s part. Conversely, God uses the signs to point us to Christ and bind us to him.” Another way of putting this divide uses different terms: “The ‘ordinances,’ as they are often called, are means of expressing faith in God, and on the other side, sacraments are a means of receiving grace from God.” The terms “ordinance” or “sacrament,” in themselves, are both relatively broad and flexible words, capable of carrying a variety of meanings. They are theologically significant only insofar as they are indicators of different understandings of what is happening in baptism and the Lord’s Supper. These various understandings have produced divergent views of baptism and the Lord’s Supper, both within Protestantism and between Protestants and Catholics. 


Most Christian groups call Baptism and the Lord’s Supper (Holy Eucharist) sacraments. However, some, especially Baptists, began to object to the term sacrament because of its association with Catholic views, which they thought threatened the doctrine of justification by grace through faith. They started to use the term ordinance. Neither term is used in Scripture for baptism or the Lord’s Supper; neither defines the effect of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper in a particular way. In practice, however, most of those who use ordinance accent the human activity involved in baptism and the Lord’s Supper; those who use the term sacrament tend to see a significant role for divine activity, though they differ regarding exactly what that activity is.


Works Cited:

  [1] Robin M. Jensen, Baptismal Imagery in Early Christianity: Ritual, Visual, and Theological Dimensions (Baker Academic, 2012)

[2] Robin M. Jensen, 50

[3] Robin M. Jensen, 90

[4] Robin M. Jensen, 54

[5] Robin M. Jensen, 96

[6] Robin M. Jensen, 106

[7] Robin M. Jensen, 138

[8] Robin M. Jensen, 204-8

[9] Robin M. Jensen, 28-30

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