A Review of the Book, The Art of Preaching in the Twentieth Century Between Two Worlds, by John R. W. Stott

A Review of the Book, The Art of Preaching in the Twentieth Century Between Two Worlds, by John R. W. Stott


Preaching is indispensable to Christianity, and Preachers are urged to have a practical understanding of their craft to make an impact. The deplorable situation in the Church Today is partly due to preachers that are not truthful to the Word of God. Preaching, in simple terms, is a Proclamation that is to reveal God to the target audience; the Christians. The Sermon is what a preacher makes of the Word of God, and many preachers no longer take the trouble to study the Word of God in depth to be able to proclaim it without fear or favor.

There is fear that the pulpit might lose its potency or power of delivery. That fear is probably why John R. W. Stott published ‘The Art of Preaching in the Twentieth Century Between Two Worlds, a 351-page book of Eight Chapters that aims to bring the much-awaited revival in Preaching. The author himself is a great preacher, and he was able to write effectively about preaching, showing that ‘one foot of a preacher must be anchored in the Bible and the other in the Contemporary world.’ The book’s contents begin from the Editor’s Preface to the Epilogue. There are Eight main chapters, and they are:

  1. The Glory of Preaching: A Historical Sketch
  2. Contemporary Objections to Preaching
  3. Theological Foundations for Preaching
  4. Preaching as Bridge-building
  5. The Call to Study
  6. Preparing Sermons
  7. Sincerity and Earnestness
  8. Courage and Humility

 Summary of Book:

In Chapter One, titled ‘The Glory of Preaching: A Historical Sketch,’ the author restated that the Trinitarian Statement of a speaking Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and so of a Word of God that is Scriptural, Incarnate and Contemporary, is fundamental to the Christian Religion. The author glimpsed the glory of preaching through the eyes of its Champions in every century using:

  • The historical survey of Jesus,
  • The Apostles and the Fathers,
  • The Friars and the Reformers;
  • The Puritans and the Evangelicals;
  • The Nineteenth Century and The Twentieth Century.

He then concluded on double value; the first is to demonstrate the long and broad of the Christian Tradition, which accords great importance to Preaching, and the second is the consistency of this long and broad tradition.

Chapters two and three identified the Contemporary Objections to preaching and the Theological foundations for Preaching. The three main obstacles to preaching Today highlighted by the author are (1) The anti-authority mood that makes people unwilling to listen; (2) addiction to television which makes them unable to do so and (3) the Contemporary atmosphere of doubt which makes many preachers both unwilling and unable to speak.

These three gave rise to paralysis at both ends, speaking and hearing. The author addressed this in the next chapter three. He argued theologically for the indispensable and permanent place of preaching in the purpose of God for His Church. The priority task of a preacher is to expound the truth of the Word of God. These truths about God and Scripture, the Church, the pastorate, and biblical exposition must reinforce our trembling convictions.

The author, in chapter four, summarized the principal features of a preaching ministry, conceived as an activity of bridge-building between the revealed Word and the Contemporary world. In chapter five, ‘The Call to Study,’ he explained this bridge-building further. To the author, Exploration means StudyStudy. It is only in the fruit of preachers’ conscientious studies; Preaching will be fresh, faithful, and relevant, yet also simple enough for people to understand. The last three chapters (Chapters 6 – 8 ) dealt with preparing Sermons and delivery of Sermons. The author looked into Sincerity and Earnestness, Courage, and Humility issues. His anecdote for Sermons preparation are:

  • Choose Your Text
  • Meditate on it
  • Isolate the Dominant Thought
  • Arrange your material to serve the Dominant Thought
  • Write down and pray over Your message

The author quoted E. M. Bounds in his writing at the beginning of the century “the man, the whole man, lies behind the Sermon. Preaching is not the performance of an hour. It is the outflow of life. It takes twenty years to make a sermon because it takes twenty years to make the man.” (Bounds, p.11; what’s wrong with preaching Today?) He also quoted James Black ‘the best Preaching is always the natural overflow of a ripe mind and the expression of a growing experience.

A good sermon is never worked up but worked out.” The author agreed that the words’ outflow’ and ‘overflow’ express that faithful Preaching is never a superficial activity; it wells up out of the depths. He made an urgent call for courageous preachers in the world Today’s pulpits, like the Apostles in the early Church, who were all filled with the Holy Spirit and boldly spoke the Word of God. (Acts 4:31 cf. v.13)

In the author’s analysis of a preacher’s humility, he made a case for a humble mind (being submissive to the written Word of God), a humble ambition (desiring an encounter to take place between Christ and his people), and a humble dependence (relying on the power of the Holy Spirit). To him, this indicates that a preacher’s message must be God’s Word, not his, and his aim is Christ’s glory, not the preacher’s. Dr. Stott found it imperative to conclude the book’s last chapter by quoting some anonymous words which the Rev. Basil Gough found in the vestries of St. Mary – at – Quay Church in Ipswitch, Suffolk and Hatherleigh Parish Church in Devon:

        “When telling thy Salvation free,

let all – absorbing thoughts of thee

My heart and Soul engross;

And when all hearts are bowed and stirred

Beneath the influence of thy Word,

Hide me behind thy Cross.”



My view from the perspective of a writer and a preacher is one of the author’s targets audiences. The book is durable with a bold, attractive typeface and cover. I commend the expert proofreading and editorial effort put into it. The clarity of the fonts and the prints make the book reader-friendly. In the book, the author brings to bear his years of experience as a preacher, a Christian Crusader’s zeal, and a teacher’s resourcefulness.

I agree that the book defends preaching and guides those called to do it into a practical understanding of Preaching. The book is Biblical, relevant to Today’s Preaching, and spiritual in its truth and thrusts. The book can change a preacher’s life.


The book “The Art of Preaching in the Twentieth Century-BETWEEN TWO WORLDS” achieved the author’s purpose to make one become a better preacher. Throughout the book, the author states that Preaching is indispensable to Christianity. He encouraged Preaching and showed how it must be balanced and anchored in the Bible and the Contemporary world. His opinion is that the ‘glory’ in the preaching ministry prepared us to face with integrity and gave practical advice on StudyStudy and sermon preparation. According to the author, God called us to preach with sincerity, earnestness, courage, and humility to restore health and vitality to the Church and lead its members into Spiritual maturity.

The strength also lies in its share of humor from the ecumenical parables, quotations, and references. The author believes that though the Holy Spirit is very potent in ministering to us, it offers no comfort to lazy, proud, and pious preachers who fail to prepare their sermons.


The historical sketch in chapter 1 was far from complete; the author used a very subjective selection of witnesses instead. The author did not offer what I can term a ‘Magical’ solution to turn a lousy preacher into a good preacher though he attempted it in his emphasis on the Dominant Thought. The helpful formula given by Dr. Sola Aworinde in getting the main idea in preparation for Sermon is not espoused in the book. “M.I = S + C” where M. I is the Main Idea, S is the Subject, and C is the completer. To me, this is a password to good Preaching. The book’s binding is not good enough as the sheets come loose with reading or opening pages.


I recommend it to all Preachers and Seminary Students, especially students of Homiletics. Please buy it, read it and study it.

The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part Five

The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part Five (Final)

Women Of The Azusa Street Revival:

  1. Jennie Evans Moore (1883 – 19360

She was the first woman baptized in the spirit at Bonnie Brae Street through Lucy Farrow’s ministry. She married William Seymour on May 13, 1908, and became the Azusa Mission’s pastor after her husband’s death in 1922 until she died in 1936.

  1. The Seven Women Elders

William J. Seymour formed a board of elders to guide the affairs of the Azusa Mission; he chose seven women and four other men. The women included Jennie Evans MooreSister Price, Mrs. G. W. Evans, Clara Lum, Phoebe Sargent, Rachel Sizelove, and Florence Crawford. Clara Lum was the editor of the Apostolic Faith paper, and she spread the exciting news of the outpouring far and wide. Florence Crawford (1872 – 1936) was anointed to preach. It was made evident by the tremendous response to meetings she conducted in the NorthWest, the United States, and Canada between August and December 1906. With Mr. and Mrs. Evans and Clara Lum, she left Azusa for Portland, where she established the Apostolic Faith Church in the NorthWest

 Women In Africa:

  1. Mary Slessor (1848 – 1915)

In Mary Slessor’s words, her life is one long, daily, hourly record of answered prayer. She was an example of “pray without ceasing” (1 Thess. 5: 17). Her Christian influence was seen in the lives of the natives of West Africa called ‘White Ma.’ Mary was a missionary to Nigeria. She was gentle, sensitive, loving, and a friend of the little children, the weak, and the oppressed. In 1876, under the direction of the United Presbyterian Church, she worked in Calabar, the present Cross River State in Nigeria. She was in Calabar for thirty-eight years until her death in 1915.

Mary aimed to win Africans for Christ and did this by prayerfully caring for their physical and spiritual needs. She counseled the natives on the barbaric act of killing their twins. She helped to rid the taboo regarding twins as evil and brought into her house to live, many sets of twins, caring for them as their mother. Mary’s religion (Christianity) was a matter of the heart, and her communion with her heavenly father was natural and childlike. Mary Slessor was regarded as “a living Saint” before her death.

  1. Pastor Bimbo Odukoya (September 12, 1960 – December 10, 2005)

Pastor Bimbo, as she was fondly called, was the best-known woman evangelist in recent day Nigeria. She was an associate Pastor at the Fountain of Life Church, an organization she ran with her husband during her lifetime. She ministered to spinsters, bachelors, and middle-aged couples whose marriages were floundering. Her regular T.V. program “Single and Married” won national acclaim in Nigeria as it championed her drive to raise moral standards in a decadent society.

She was seen as a role model to millions worldwide due to her ministry’s positive influence on their relationships. Pastor Bimbo’s emphasis was on old-fashioned marital fidelity. She counseled the Single and regularly married on print media with a regular column in Punch Newspaper. She also used television and the internet to communicate her message to the target audience. She died in a Sosoliso air crash on December 10, 2005, while on her way to a Christian crusade.


Other Celebrated Christian Women:

  1. Lindsay Freda (born 1914)

She was a wife to Gordon Lindsay. She preached along with her husband until he died in 1973. Afterward, she edited the Voice of Healing Magazine and headed the Christ for the Nations Institute in Dallas, Texas.

  1. Kuhlman Kathryn (1907 – 1976)

Her tremendous healing crusades filled the largest arenas in the land, especially after 1965. Kathryn had become a national celebrity by 1975. She was one of the most extraordinary Christian mystics, clairvoyants, and charismatic healers. In her word, Kathryn said I carry a water bucket for the Lord. She denied being a preacher or a healer; in her words, I don’t know what I am other than just somebody who loves people and wants to try to help everybody more than I can. I’m not a faith healer because I’ve never healed anyone. It’s just the mercy of God. She was also a writer; she wrote the book ‘I believe in Miracles’ in which she explained, Many have been the times when I have felt like taking the shoes from off my feet, knowing that the ground on which I stood was Holy Ground. Many times, the Power of the Holy Ghost is so present in my body that I have to struggle to remain on my feet. Many times, His very Presence healed sick bodies before my eyes. She had a worldwide interdenominational following of millions.

  1. Sister Gwen Shaw (born 1924)

She was the founder of End-Time Handmaidens and servants (est. 1973) and the first woman to speak in the famous Baptist Church in Moscow in 1966. Sister Gwen was a Canadian-born, birthright Mennonite who experienced Pentecost in 1942. God called her to China while she was a young student at Eastern Pentecostal Bible College Toronto, Canada, in January 1944. By 1947, she was ministering in inner Mongolia to the Chinese people. After barely escaping the advancing Communist forces of the revolution, Gwen continued to minister in the Orient for twenty-three years from her base in Hong Kong. God used this humble yet distinguished woman of faith and compassion to light revival fires.

  1.      Barton, Clarissa Harlowe  

Known better than Clara Barton, she founded the American Red Cross and cared for wounded soldiers on both sides of the conflict during the Civil War. After the war, she established a missing soldier’s bureau in Washington, D.C., which helped gather identification records for the missing and the dead. Her office was recently discovered in a building scheduled for demolition, and efforts are now underway to preserve this historical find.

  1.    Blechshmidt, Dorothy Case   

Dorothy, a 1907 graduate of the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, practiced medicine in Palestine and later became a leading advocate of women’s health issues in Philadelphia. She also established the Dorothy Case-Blechschmidt Cancer Health Clinic of Doctor’s Hospital there.

  1.   Bowes, Margaret     

Margaret immigrated from Scotland with her family to Canada in the mid-1800s. She was later removed to N.Y., where she survived two husbands and became a well-known midwife and surrogate mother of more than 30 homeless or poorly cared for children.

  1.    Hales, Matilda   

A devout member of the LDS church, Matilda attended Brigham Young Academy and received her teaching certificate. However, she decided to become a midwife and nurse and never married. Despite her rheumatoid arthritis, she delivered many babies, brought food and other necessities to those in need, and advocated legislation prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors.

  1.   Lozier, Charlotte    

Although she lived a short time, Charlotte, like her more famous mother-in-law, Clemence Lozier, was one of the earliest women physicians. Her education opened the way for her lectures and public addresses concerning women’s rights. She became Vice- President of the National Workingwomen’s Association and traveled extensively.

  1.    Lozier, Clemence    

She was the founder of the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women. Dr. Clemence Sophia Lozier was one of the earliest women who practiced medicine and was thoroughly identified with the cause of medical education for women.

  1.   Payne, Jessica   

Although she was not a physician like her mother and grandmother, Jessica nevertheless was aware of the plight of poor, needy women and performed much charity work. She was also a correspondent during World War I in England.

  1.   Sands, Sarah Walker   

Sarah was an early settler of Block Island and served as the island’s “surgeon,” ministering to the needs of all on the island. Her home served as a church and hospital and was a haven for any stranger.

  1.   Simpson, Cora Eliza  

Cora began life as a child of pioneers, traveling by covered wagon to Oregon. After receiving a public health nursing certificate from Simmons College in Boston, she traveled to China in 1907 as a missionary. There she founded and directed the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing.

  1.   Trout, Jennie Kidd   

Jennie was the first woman physician licensed to practice in Canada, passing the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons examinations at the age of 34. on May 13, 1875. Dr. Trout opened the Therapeutic and Electrical Institute, featuring “special facilities for giving treatment to ladies by galvanic baths or electricity.” The Toronto medical college opened on October 1, 1883, and the Kingston Women’s Medical College opened the next day with Jennie Trout as one of the trustees. The two colleges merged as the Ontario Medical College for Women in Toronto in 1894. Jennie, a strong temperance advocate, served as Vice President and President of the Women’s Temperance Union. Also, for a time, she was Vice President of the Association for the Advancement of Women.

  1.   Cuillerier, Marie-Anne   

Marie-Anne entered the order of the Nuns Hospitallers of St. Joseph at Montreal in 1694, and from 1725 to 1747, she held the secretary’s office. Her letters and annals contain first-hand information on the difficulties of daily life in New France and the religious mentality of the inhabitants of Canada.  

  1.   Dyer, Mary Barrett   

Followers of Anne Hutchinson, Mary, and William Dyer were excommunicated and banished from Boston and followed Anne to Rhode Island, where they were among the founders of Portsmouth. Mary spent several years in England, where she met George Fox, founder of the Quaker religion, and returned to the colonies in time for the new laws which banished Quakers from the M.A. Bay Colony upon pain of death. Imprisoned several times and nearly hanged once alongside two Quakers Friends, Mary returned to Boston one too many times and became the first woman hanged for her Quaker convictions.

  1.   Hooton, Elizabeth   

A disciple of George Fox, Elizabeth was one of the first female Quaker preachers imprisoned several times in England and colonial Massachusetts. Twice she was jailed in Boston, then carried two days journey into the forest and left there to starve. Both times she managed to find her way back to Rhode Island, even after one time of having been “whipped through three towns.”

  1.  Hutchinson, Anne    

She was a visionary ahead of her time who believed that women were equally capable of interpreting the Bible without intervention from church elders; Anne Hutchinson advocated religious freedom and toleration and was banished from Boston for her “radical” ideas. Anne and her followers went to Rhode Island, where they founded the first civil government in America, the colony of Portsmouth.

  1.   Saint Margaret, Queen of Scotland   

Wife of King Malcolm III of Scotland, Margaret helped civilize and refine her husband and her adopted country. She devoted time and money to works of charity, assisting the poor, the aged, the orphans, and the sick. Margaret re-founded the monastery on the Island of Iona and built a church at Dunfermline. She was the mother of four Scot kings and mother-in-law of England’s King Henry I.

  1.   Starbuck, Mary Coffin   

Reverend Mary was one of the first Quaker leaders in Nantucket, MA, who held meetings at her house until a proper Meeting House could be built. She catered to her members’ well-being and was also a good counselor.

  1.  Wilkinson, Jemima   

Jemima, also known as the “Universal Publik Friend” or “The Friend,” was a descendant of Rhode Island Quakers. After a near-death experience, she became the founder of a new religious order called “The Universal Friends,” a forerunner of the more popular Christian Scientists.

  1. De Marillac Louise

De Marillac Louise was a devout French woman married to a high official. After her husband’s death, she established a sheltering ministry for women in crisis. At the time of her death, the ministry had more than 40 houses throughout France and 26 more in Paris alone.

  1. Bojaxhiu Gonxha Agnes (MOTHER TERESA)

Mother Teresa was recognized worldwide as the very personification of compassion. Her duty was to minister to the sick, the poorest of human societies, the disabled, and the dying. She did for more than a half-century; to her, it is Christ in His distressing disguise whom she loved and served. She claimed to be God’s pencil which He writes what He likes. She was an active participant in 126 nations and six continents. She operated more than five hundred homes and clinics. As a Catholic Nun and Missionary sister in Calcutta, India, she was laden with the poverty of the Cross, walked the streets, and responded to the distress of children, the sick, and the poor.

In 1950, Mother Teresa founded the order of the Missionaries of Charity, which was dedicated to alleviating human suffering. To her, God is all, and she is nothing. Ladies Home Journal in the Spring 1999 book included her in the 100 most influential women of the 20th Century and observed that Mother Theresa believed in the preciousness and dignity of human life that was as unshakable as her deep religious faith. In Greek Souls, Six who changed the Century, authored by David Aikman, he said of Mother Teresa that she not only demonstrated what true light is but to her dying day, she pointed the way for millions and millions of others to find it too.

  1. Nightingale Florence (1820 – 1910)

Florence is known as the “Lady with the lamp.” That was the signature tune of this amiable woman. Florence met a deplorable situation on the ground at the English General Hospitals in Turkey, but she did not despair. Instead, she brought a ray of hope and won great respect for herself. She was the rock all clung to in the hospital due to her calmness, resources, and power to take action. Florence forsook wealth, fame, and social life to become a nurse.

She had her aunt (her father’s sister, Mai) as her spiritual mother. Florence radically changed hospital administration and reformed nursing by making it a respectable profession. The London Times reported: When all the medical officers have retired for the night and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp, in her hand, making her solitary rounds. Florence’s contributions to the care of the sick and wounded in the Crimean war were greatly applauded and appreciated. The grateful people of England donated $250,000 that she used to establish the Nightingale Home for Nurses.

The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part Four

The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part Four

Women Of Early Quakerism:

The early Quakers (1650-90) represented the most significant historic turning point for women since the time of Jesus and the Apostles. The early Quakers were preoccupied with a Christian lifestyle reflecting the compassion of Jesus and renouncing any dependence on outward religion. [1] This ideal carried over into their concept of Ministry that was synonymous with Christian living, pastoral care, and counseling.

 Margaret Fell (1614 – 1702)

Fell was a former Anglican gentry and was instrumental in helping women learn to exercise their equality in Society. In 1666, while in prison for her faith, she wrote Women Speaking Justified, the first book by a woman giving a biblically based theology for female public Ministry.

Women Of Early Methodism

The Methodist revival in England (1739-60) was charismatic. It demonstrated an essential inclusion of women, giving them opportunities to be involved in pastoral care, counseling, and the freedom to minister. The emancipation of womanhood began with John Wesley. Wesley’s mother, Susannah, trained her sons well and imparted sound doctrinal counsel.

Amanda Matthews – Berry Smith (1837 – 1915)

Amanda was born to enslaved people in the state of Maryland. She became a Christian and began preaching in 1870. Amanda continued in her pastoral care with tremendous success despite cruel racism and barbarous sexism. Her gift made room for her, and she gained tremendous respect in all quarters of Society. She ministered with great success throughout America, the British Isles, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burma, and India, where she was commended by Methodist Bishop Thoburn. [2]

Katherine Bushnell

She was a brilliant woman whose devotion led her to China as a Methodist Episcopal missionary doctor and later to the Wisconsin lumber camps as an activist exposing the sex slave trade. Her single most important work and contribution is her book God’s Word to Women. This book was initially released as one hundred Bible study lessons on women’s place in the divine economy; it was later published in 1923.

Women In The Missionary Movement

Hosts of women were mobilized in missions when the Pentecostal revival arrived on the scene. Some women contributed their quotas to pastoral care and counseling on the mission field, and women functioned in all aspects of the Ministry. Groups such as A. B. Simpson’s Christian Missionary Alliance contributed immensely to missionary activity.

Phoebe Worrall Palmer (1807 – 74)

Phoebe was a devout Methodist from childhood; she married fellow Methodist and New York physician Walter Clarke Palmer (1804 – 83). Her simple obedience to God’s Call resulted in Phoebe’s far-reaching influence. She was a dominant theologian emphasizing a baptism of the Holy Spirit after conversion. Her meetings recorded at least twenty-five thousand conversions and sanctification experiences. [3] She was a prolific writer who used her books as a system of change and counseling. One of her books, the 421-page The Promise of the Father (1859), articulates a biblical theology validating woman’s right and responsibility to obey the Call to public Ministry with Acts 2: 17-18 as its starting point for discussion.

Catherine Mumford Booth (1829 – 90)

She was a co-founder of the Salvation Army with her husband, William Booth (1829 – 1912). She worked tirelessly and made an immense contribution to the growth and success of the Salvation Army. She not only got involved in pastoral care, but she also fought for equal authority, equal rights, and equal responsibilities for women.

Women In The Healing Movement:

Carrie Judd Mongomery (1848 – 1946)

She was the first woman to itinerate across America. Carrie was healed in 1879 through Elizabeth Mix’s Ministry and, since then, became active in the healing movement. She operated in the 1880s ‘Faith Rest Cottage’, a healing home in Buffalo, New York. In 1890, Carrie married George Montgomery and moved with him to Oakland, California. She opened the ‘Home of Peace’ in 1893, the first West Coast healing home.

Maria Woodworth – Etter (1844 – 1924)

She conducted mass tent healing revivals as a holiness preacher before becoming a Pentecostal in 1912.

Lucy Farrow

She deserves special mention. She was born in slavery as a holiness pastor in Houston when Parham arrived in 1905. She worked closely with the Parhams (Charles and Sarah, together with Sarah’s sister, Lilian), serving as governess to the children and preaching and ministering in the meetings. She was one of the first Pentecostal missionaries to Liberia, West Africa.

The Duncan sisters

In November 1894, Elizabeth Duncan Baker (1849 – 1915) and her four sisters began a mission-oriented faith ministry in Rochester, New York. Their impressive ministry center included Elim Faith Home (est. 1895), Elim Tabernacle Church, and Rochester Bible Training School (est. 1906 – 24). They held a special place in their hearts for missions. Elizabeth’s visit to Pandita Ramabai’s (1858 – 1920) work in India intensified this interest. Elizabeth and Ramabai became friends, and she was instrumental by her counsel in Ramabai’s establishing a mission to Temple prostitutes. She was involved in a lot of counseling. She raised money in England and the United States for the Indian Ministry.

Mother Moss. Virginia E. (1875 – 1919)

Mother Moss was an educator and pastor and a third-generation woman in Ministry. In 1910, Mother Moss moved her ministry center to North Bergen, New Jersey, where she merged her mission and healing home to become the Beulah Heights Assembly. She saw a great need to equip those in the field and established Beulah Heights Bible and Missionary Training School in 1912.

Minnie Tingley Draper (1858 – 1821)

She was another educator in the early Pentecostal revival on the East Coast. Draper had a powerful healing evangelist ministry and worked closely with A. B. Simpson as an administrative executive with the Christian and Missionary Alliance. Her counseling was done mainly through her writings. She published the South and Central African Pentecostal Herald, which later adopted Full Gospel Missionary Herald. In 1916, Draper established Bethel Bible Training School as part of the Newark ministry center.

Aimee Semple Mcpherson (1890 – 1944)

She was the best-known woman preacher in modern times. The Church she founded, the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, now spans the globe. In 1917, Aimee began the monthly publication of the Bridal Call. On January 1, 1923, she opened the 5,300-seat Angeless Temple, where for three years, she preached every night and three times on Sundays to over 5000 crowds. A month later, Aimee opened the Lighthouse for International Foursquare Evangelism, known as L.I.F.E. Bible College, a training center to equip men and women to become Evangelists, Missionaries, Pastors, and Teachers. So desperately, she needed to bring people to Christ and ground people’s faith in God’s Word. In 1924, Aimee began operating her radio station, and in 1927, Aimee opened the Angeless Temple Commissary. The same year she incorporated the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. She died on September 20, 1944, and was buried in forest lawn cemetery in Glendale, California, on October 9, 1944, in one of the largest funerals ever held in Los Angeles.


  •   [1] Susan C. Hyatt – Spirit-filled Women
  • [2] Vinson Synan – The century of the Holy Spirit
  • [3] Vinson, Synan – The Century of the Holy Spirit


The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part Three

The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part Three

The Apostolic Mothers And Wives:

The Roman Empire had fallen, and the barbarians invaded. The lights of what appeared to St. Ambrose an unquenchable Roman civilization had been quenched. One era closed, but a new plan for humanity was opening. God planned that the temporal Reign of Christ is born from the remnants of that broken Roman Empire that converted the uncivilized barbarian tribes. In this darkness, a new light appeared – noble, sacred, dignified. A soul imbued with the spirit of the Catholic Church, shining with the lumen of sanctity from the Mystical Body of Christ.

St. Clotilda (474-545)

She was the daughter of the King of the Burgundians of Lyons, wife of Clovis, King of the Franks. Clovis had reasons to want this Christian wife. Clotilda was reputed to be very beautiful; the Burgundians would become an ally of the Franks, and a Christian wife could help to bind his Roman subjects more closely to him. Confident of her virtue, Bishop Remigius sent the 17-year-old girl to reign as queen over the pagan Franks with the mission of converting their barbarian King. We can imagine Clotilda: her features are delicate but firm, stately in bearing, sophisticated in gesture and voice. Her constant prayers and exemplary life began to affect Clovis. To understand the influence of St. Clotilda, one need only recall the exclamation of Clovis during a battle against the Alemanni. Seeing his troops on the point of yielding, he invoked the aid of “the God of Clotilda” and promised to become a Catholic if only victory were granted him. By the force and influence of that supernatural lumen of Clotilda, Clovis understood the light of the Catholic Church.

It was St. Clotilda, born at the dawn of the Middle Ages, a sun who will shine for all of history. Rejoicing quietly, humbly, without the palms of victory, she would have assisted at the Baptism of Clovis at Christmas 496, perhaps with the intuition that a historical era was being born. The Frankish Kingdom thenceforth become the representative and defender of Catholic interests throughout the West. In this crucial situation, one woman had a decisive mission: Clotilda. In Britain, it fell to the great-granddaughter of Clotilda to unlock the doors for Christianity.


A Frankish princess (d. 612), married the pagan King Elthelbert of Kent. For many years she lived as a Catholic at the pagan court of Canterbury. When St. Augustine of Canterbury arrived at the head of his forty missionaries to preach the Gospel in England in 596, he found Queen Bertha a powerful ally at the court of her husband and Ethelbert ripe for conversion. Ethelbert was baptized on Whit-Sunday in 597, and Canterbury became the mother of the Church of England.


Bertha’s daughter, following in that heroic tradition of the family, married the pagan King Edwin of Northumbria and thus carried the faith to the Angles. Edwin, the first Christian King of Northumbria, was baptized at York in 627 and was so zealous in the conversion of his people that the Church today honors him as Saint.


Around 600, Theodlind, a Bavarian Christian princess married the King of the Lombards. Both husband and nation converted to the Catholic faith. In Spain, a pious Christian Greek mother,


She instructed the two sons of her impious Visigothic husband in the Catholic faith. One son, St. Hermengild, died a martyr rather than abjuring his Catholic belief. His brother Recared ascended the throne, embraced Christianity, and proclaimed Spain aspired to be a Catholic nation at the 3rd Council of Toledo (589). The Christian mother from her tomb had triumphed in her sons over the persecuting father.

St. Ludmilla

Turning East, we see the first Christian Queen of Bohemia, who converted with her husband in 879. She was strangled at prayer in 921 at the order of her daughter-in-law, who was jealous of Ludmilla’s significant influence over her grandson. That grandson was the great famous hero St. Wenceslaus, who would water with his blood the seeds of faith planted so heroically by his grandmother. Catholic queens laid the foundation for Christianity in Poland and Russia.

St. Margaret of Scotland (1038-1093)

And it was the great St. Margaret of Scotland who married Malcolm III of Scotland and gentled the rough manners of the Highland warriors. In her position as queen, all of Margaret’s significant influence was thrown into the cause of religion and piety. She was instrumental in the convocation of the synod that instituted reforms that led Scotland out of isolation and into line with the rest of Western Christendom.

Queen Blanche

The valiant Queen Blanche of Castile told her young son, who would become St. Louis IX of France: I would rather see you dead at my feet than have you commit one mortal sin. A formidable woman, Blanche of Castile was able to hold the Crown for her son during the regency against powers in Languedoc, Brittany, the Ile de France, and even Henry III of England. It is a fragment of the stories of great medieval women, many of whom are Saints. It is said that the history of a saint is a page in the history of Christian Civilization. Let Simone de Beauvoirs’ and the feminists’ rage and twist the facts of history. But the truth needs to be stated. The role and influence of virtuous Catholic wives and mothers, who never lost their femininity of spirit, has always been immense. These women are archetypes for young girls and women today who are so desperately in need of finding models of women who did not abandon their traditional roles and yet were so essential in the shaping of Christian Civilization, masters in pastoral care, and great counselors.

Women In The 1st – 5th Century Of Christianity:

After the death of Jesus, women continued to play prominent roles in the early movement. Some scholars have even suggested that most Christians in the first century were women. The letters of Paul, dated to the middle of the first century CE, and his casual greetings to acquaintances offer fascinating and solid information about many Jewish and Gentile women who were prominent in the movement. His letters provide vivid clues about the activities women engaged in more generally. He greets Priscilla, Aquila, Mary, Junias, Tryphena, Tryphosa, Persis, Rufus’ mother, Julia, and Nereus’ sister and Olympas who worked and traveled as missionaries in pairs with their husbands or brothers (Romans 16:3, 7, 15). He tells us that Priscilla and her husband risked their lives to save him. He praises Junia as a prominent apostle who had been imprisoned for her labor. Mary and Persis are commended for their hard work (Romans 16:6, 12). Euodia and Syntyche are called his fellow workers in the gospel (Philippians 4:2-3). Here is clear evidence of women’s contribution to pastoral care and counseling in the first century of Christianity.

Paul’s letters also offer some important glimpses into the inner workings of ancient Christian churches. These groups did not own church buildings but met in homes, no doubt due in part to the fact that Christianity was not legal in the Roman world at that time and partly because of the enormous expense to such fledgling societies. Such homes were a domain in which women played vital roles. It is not surprising to see women taking leadership roles in house churches. Paul tells of women who were the leaders of such house churches (Apphia in Philemon I:2; Priscilla in I Corinthians 16:19).

This practice is confirmed by other texts that mention women who headed churches in their homes, such as Lydia of Thyatira (Acts 16:15) and Nympha of Laodicea (Colossians 4:15).

Women held offices and played significant roles in group worship. Paul, for example, greets a deacon named Phoebe (Romans 16:1) and assumes that women are praying and prophesying during worship (I Corinthians 11). Women’s roles were not limited to pastoral care and counseling but included ecstatic public speech, preaching, teaching, leading prayer, and perhaps even performing the Eucharist meal. (A later first-century work, the Didache, assumes that this duty fell regularly to Christian prophets.)

Other women appear in later literature as well. One of the most famous woman apostles was Thecla, a virgin martyr converted by Paul. She cut her hair, donned men’s clothing, and took up the duties of a missionary apostle. She persevered in her faith and purity. She was threatened with rape and prostitution and was twice put in the ring as a martyr. She was reported to have contributed to pastoral care in her mission to excel. Her lively and somewhat fabulous story is recorded in the second-century Acts of Thecia.  From very early, widowed women served formal ministry roles in some churches (I Timothy 5:9-10).

The Corinthian women, Philip’s daughters, Ammia of Philadelphia, Philumene, and the visionary martyr Perpetua, Maximilla, were among those involved in pastoral care. For example, the African church father Tertullian describes an unnamed woman prophet in his congregation who not only had ecstatic visions during church services but also served as a counselor and healer (On the Soul 9.4). A remarkable collection of oracles from another unnamed woman prophet was discovered in Egypt in 1945. She speaks in the first person as the feminine voice of God: Thunder, Perfect Mind. Women prophets inspired a Christian movement in second-century Asia Minor (called the New Prophecy or Montanism) that spread around the Mediterranean and lasted for at least four centuries.

Their oracles were collected and published, including the account of a vision in which Christ appeared to the prophet as a woman and “put wisdom” in her (Epiphanius, Panarion 49.1). Montanist Christians ordained women as presbyters and bishops, and women held the title of the prophet, but in reality, they were into pastoral care and counseling. The third-century African bishop Cyprian also tells of an ecstatic woman prophet from Asia Minor who celebrated the Eucharist and performed baptisms (Epistle 74.10).

Women were also prominent as martyrs and suffered violently from torture and painful execution by wild animals and paid gladiators. The earliest writing by a woman is the prison diary of Perpetua, a relatively wealthy matron, and nursing mother. She was put to death in Carthage at the beginning of the third century on the charge of being a Christian. In it, she records her testimony before the local Roman ruler and her defiance of her father’s pleas that she recant. She told of the support and fellowship among the confessors in prison, including other women.

But above all, she records her prophetic visions. Through them, she was not merely reconciled passively to her fate. But she claimed the power to define the meaning of her death in a situation where Romans use their violence against her body as a witness to their power and justice and where the Christian editor of her story sought to turn her death into a witness to the truth of Christianity. Her writing lets us see the human being caught up in these political struggles. She actively relinquishes her female roles as mother, daughter, and sister in favor of defining her identity solely in spiritual terms. However horrifying or heroic her behavior may seem, her brief diary offers an intimate look at one early Christian woman’s spiritual journey.


The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part Two

The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part Two

Women Of the New Testament At The Time Of Jesus Christ:

Elizabeth: The Pastor’s wife

Elizabeth was the wife of Zacharias, the priest and the mother of John the Baptist. She was a descendant of the tribe of Aaron. Her name is derived from the same root word as that of Aaron’s wife, Elisheba, which means God is my oath. Even before Mary, the mother of Jesus, Elizabeth was the first woman to confess Christ in the flesh. In Luke 1: 43, she says But why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? Elizabeth was of noble character and was considered righteous before God. She enhanced her husband’s ministry with her godly counsel and support. Elizabeth was faithful, humble, and patient.

Zacharias, her husband, did not believe the angel Gabriel and wondered how God could bless them with a child at such an old age and was unable to speak for the duration of his wife’s pregnancy because of his unbelief. Elizabeth immediately believed that God had finally removed her reproach even though she did not see or hear the angel. Elizabeth named the child John according to God’s command against the wishes of relations in support of her husband. She also gave good counsel to Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, when she visited her during her pregnancy and humbled herself by giving the younger Mary a position of honor. Throughout the trial of her husband, she patiently stood by him.

Mary: The Mother of Jesus Christ

Mary, the mother of Jesus, has a unique place in Salvation history and a vital role in the incarnation. She was often with Jesus in various cities. There are no more excellent examples of obedience than Mary. When the angel of the Lord appeared to her and told her that she would conceive a child though she was not married, Mary told the Lord that she was grateful to be His servant. Mary’s response was recorded in Luke 1: 38 “I am the Lord’s servant,” Mary answered. “May it be to me as you have said.” Then the angel left her. A horrible stigma involved being unwed and pregnant; Mary’s life was in jeopardy. She knew she could be stoned to death for her condition, yet she obeyed God’s commands, trusting Him to provide for her and protect her.

When Jesus was twelve years old and was missing for three days in Jerusalem, she was terrified and went to look for him. Her excellent counsel to her son, Jesus Christ, made him perform the first miracle at a wedding at Cana in Galilee, John 2: 1-11. She also counseled the servants to do whatever Jesus told them. She was a great Counsellor.

Anna: The Prophetess

Anna was the daughter of Phanuel of the tribe of Asher, a descendant of Judah. She was a prophetess who served in the temple with Simeon. And they were both waiting for the coming of the promised Messiah. Her husband died seven years after their marriage, and she devoted the rest of her life to God’s service in the temple. This young widow dared to be different through her total involvement in pastoral care and counseling other widows.

Anna was a prophetess, one of the few recorded in the Bible. The others are Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, Naodia, and the four daughters of Phillip the Evangelist.

She used the knowledge and wisdom granted to her by God for the benefit of others. Anna was a spokeswoman of God. She was divinely called to minister to people speaking the will of God. Anna spent her entire life praying not for her own needs but for the needs and problems of others and the nation of Israel. She was an intercessor who took other people’s problems as her own and pleaded for them before God. She prayed with fasting without ceasing. Anna was a widow for over sixty years. She ministered to the needs of others without complaining. When Jesus was brought to the temple, Anna thanked God, blessed the baby Jesus, and rejoiced at the unique opportunity to witness the coming of the Messiah that had been prophesied long ago. She did not only confess but spoke of Jesus to all who looked for the redemption of Jerusalem. She was a great evangelist.

Mary Magdalene

Mary Magdalene was first mentioned in Luke 8: 2 as one of the women healed of evil spirits and infirmities. She ministered unto Jesus and the Apostles of her substance. An unfortunate tradition identifies her with the unnamed sinful woman who anointed our Lord (Luke 7:37), and she has been thus regarded as the typical reformed ‘fallen woman’ [1]. A series of spectacular 19th and 20th-century discoveries of Christian texts in Egypt dating to the second and third centuries have yielded a treasury of new information. It was already known from the New Testament gospels that Mary was a Jewish woman who followed Jesus of Nazareth. Apparently of independent means, she accompanied Jesus during his ministry and supported him out of her resources (Mark 15:40-41; Matthew 27:55-56; Luke 8:1-3; John 19:25). Although other information about her is more fantastic, She is portrayed as a prophetic visionary and as a leader among the disciples.( Mark 16:1-9; Matthew 28:1-10; Luke24:1-10; John 20:1, 11-18; Gospel of Peter ). In the Gospel of John, the risen Jesus gives her special teaching and commissions her as an apostle to the apostles to bring them the good news. She obeys and is the first to announce the resurrection and play the role of an apostle, although the term is not specifically used for her. Later tradition, however, will herald her as “the apostle to the apostles.” The strength of this literary tradition makes it possible to suggest that historically Mary was a prophetic, visionary leader within one sector of the early Christian movement after the death of Jesus. Her contributions to pastoral care and counseling were indeed celebrated and highlighted.

In the ‘Sophia of Jesus Christ, Mary plays a clear role among those whom Jesus teaches. She is one of the seven women, and twelve men gathered to hear the Savior after the resurrection but before his ascension. Of these, only five are named to have spoken, including Mary. At the end of his discourse, Jesus told them, I have given you authority over all things as children of light, and they went forth in joy to preach the gospel. Here again, Mary is included among those special disciples to whom Jesus entrusted his most formal teaching, and she takes a role in preaching the gospel. In the Gospel of Philip, Mary Magdalene is mentioned as one of three Marys who walked with the Lord as his companion (59.6-11). In the ‘Pistis Sophia,’ Mary again is preeminent among the disciples, especially in the first three of the four books. She asks more questions than all the rest of the disciples. And the Savior acknowledges that: Her heart is directed to the Kingdom of Heaven more than all her brothers (26:17-20). Indeed, Mary steps in when the other disciples are despairing to intercede for them before the Savior (218:10-219:2). Her complete spiritual comprehension is repeatedly stressed. She is, however, most prominent in the early second century ‘Gospel of Mary’, which is ascribed pseudonymously to her.

More than any other early Christian text, the ‘Gospel of Mary’ presents an unflinchingly good portrait of Mary Magdalene as a woman leader among the disciples. The Lord himself says she is blessed for not wavering when he appears to her in a vision. When all the other disciples are weeping and frightened, she alone remains steadfast in her faith because she has grasped and appropriated the salvation offered in Jesus’ teachings. Mary models the ideal disciple as she steps into the role of the Savior at his departure, comforts, and instructs the other disciples. Peter asks her to say any words of the Savior that she might know but that the other disciples have not heard. His request acknowledges that Mary was preeminent among women in Jesus’ esteem, and the question suggests that Jesus gave her private instruction. Mary agrees and gives an account of a “secret” teaching she received from the Lord in a vision. The vision is given in the form of a dialogue between the Lord and Mary; it is an extensive account that takes up seven out of the eighteen pages of the work. After the work, Levi confirms that, indeed, the Saviour loved her more than the rest of the disciples (18.14-15). The ‘Gospel of Mary affirms the truth of her teachings and her authority to teach the male disciples. Mary Magdalene’s dedication and gratitude to Christ were complete. She served Him with everything she had; her money and labor. She dared to follow Him to the end of His life despite the danger to herself for doing so. She sought to serve Him even after death, and her service to Him was rewarded.

Mary of Bethany

Pastoral care is hospitality at its best. Hospitality is an art; ensuring a guest is welcomed, warmed, and well-fed requires creativity, organization, and teamwork. Mary of Bethany teaches us about hospitality and listening. This Mary was the sister of Lazarus and Martha. Jesus was a guest in their home many times, and Mary always paid great attention to Him. Martha chastised her sister for not helping to prepare the food and keep the house in order while they had guests, but Jesus said, “Martha, Martha,” the Lord answered, “you are worried and upset about many things, but only one thing is needed. Mary has chosen what is better, and it will not be taken away from her.” (Luke 10:41-42) Jesus was telling Martha to do as Mary, to set aside the busy work for a bit and listen. It is an important lesson. Mary of Bethany benefited from her listening. She was one of the few that understood what Jesus was facing and what it meant.

Mary’s act of devotion in anointing the head (Matthew 26: 7) and feet (John 12: 3) of our Lord, and in wiping His feet with her hair, is in perfect keeping with her character as seen in Luke 10 and John 11 as Mary sat at Jesus’s feet as a disciple. This oil was worth a fortune, so, in effect, she was pouring out all that she had at the feet of Christ. She also understood that she was anointing His body before His death. She knew He was destined to die and wanted to show her love and devotion before His death. Matthew 26:12-13 said When she poured this perfume on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. I tell you the truth, wherever this gospel is preached throughout the world, what she has done will also be told in memory of her. As a reward for her devotion and attention to Jesus’ needs (hospitality), Mary was honored like few others have ever been.


Martha is the older sister of Mary and Lazarus. Martha and Mary were remembered for their hospitality.

Martha worried more about details. She believed in Jesus with growing faith, and her weakness was expecting others to agree with her priorities and being overtly concerned with details. The last picture of Martha was her serving a meal to Jesus and his disciples. The Bible records her silence, signaling that worship begins with silence and listening, having learned what her younger sister already knew.


  •   [1] Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible


The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part One

The Contributions Of Christian Women To The Pastoral Care And Counseling Ministry Of The Church – Part One


The history and contributions of women to Christianity in any field have not been my prerogative until this project. I have studied the lives and contributions of the Apostles and the Church fathers, neglecting the significant contributions of fellow Christian women. This project has widened my horizon in scholarship, and I am grateful to Professor Uka for giving me this opportunity.

Since the creation of our matriarch, Eve, women have played vital roles in the plans and purposes of God in the world. Women were and are still vessels of transformation in God’s vineyard and source of inspiration to men in the Christian ministry. Pastoral Care and Counseling are tailor-made for women, and women have excelled in the two over the years. Christian women made valuable contributions; they were (are) inestimable jewels, committed, dedicated, loving, and passionate about God. As I studied the lives of these Christian women, I found the common character traits that set them apart from the likes of Jezebel.

They walked faithfully with God, who used them and produced His fruits and godly attributes in them. God created women to helpmeet for men, and they found their passion and instinct in pastoral care and counseling. The status of women in early Christianity has been quite debated in recent decades; no doubt, it prompted the interest in the women’s movement in Western Countries today. I think the evidence is somewhat mixed. Indeed, there is evidence in the New Testament of women doing many things within early Christianity.

In Paul’s letters, he greets women and calls them co-workers, and Paul refers to one of them by a Greek word that means “deaconess.” Women’s activities in the New Testament Period are related to women’s role in the house churches, especially in pastoral care and counseling. The earliest Christian communities met in people’s houses because no churches existed. Women owned the houses in which the early Christians met, and this is very significant because they did not only provide coffee and cookies. They were prayer warriors and saw to the believers’ spiritual development.

I intend to showcase in this write-up women from various backgrounds, women belonging to different states’ statutes, races, and exposure. I will show that these Christian women exhibit Agape Love in pastoral care and counseling. Unfeigned practical love has a divinely generated magnetic power far more effective than any other evangelistic program. These Christian women contributed immensely to the growth of Christianity, and they deserve to be celebrated. They are true heroines of Faith and Christian Service. Let us all stand up and applaud them and their various contributions to the spread of the Good News through their selfless services.

At strategic times in Salvation history, God chose women and empowered them with His Spirit to carry out His will in extraordinary ways. God chose Mary to give birth to the Saviour. He chose another Mary as the first apostle to proclaim the Good news of Jesus’ resurrection. And God chose women in the early Church to pastor, teach, take care of, counsel and proclaim the gospel. Women were co-workers with Apostle Paul and joint heirs with Christ and their brothers in the Faith. Throughout the Centuries, God has called countless women and empowered them to fulfill both humble and high-profile assignments. Women have contributed immensely to pastoral care and counseling in Christian ministry.

Jesus Christ chose twelve male disciples and designated them, apostles. Many assume that Jesus traveled around with just his twelve apostles as companions. Still, the evidence proved that women traveled with Jesus Christ and were important figures in the Scripture. The lessons learned from these women are more subtle and valuable than those taught by men. Luke 8: 1- 3 days after this, Jesus traveled about from one town and village to another, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God. The twelve were with him, and also some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases: Mary (called Magdalene) from whom seven demons had come out; Joanna, the wife of Chuza, the manager of Herod’s household; Susanna; and many others. These women were helping to support them out of their means. Like the male disciples, these women learned from Jesus Christ and contributed immensely to the upkeep of Jesus Christ and His disciples.

They also participated in counseling men and women that followed Jesus. These women were the forerunners responsible for pastoral care and counseling. The Apostolic mothers and wives (those that lived at the time of the apostles or immediately after) were more involved in pastoral care and counseling than Church planting or evangelical outreaches like today’s Pentecostal women. Their contributions were more towards the development and growth of the individual within the believer community (Church). They were involved in consultation, deliberation, and exchange of ideas. Their Christian call was to care for the brethren’s physical, emotional and spiritual needs.

These women helped uplift spiritual ecstasy and assisted those in need and spiritually poor. They brought the principles of God’s word (the Bible) to bear upon human problems. They trusted in the word of God, as directed by the Holy Spirit through prayers. These personalities range from women of the Old Testament, New Testament, 2nd to 5th century, women of early Quakerism, women in missions, women of the Azusa street revival, and many other celebrated women across the globe.

The various contributions of these Christian women to pastoral care and counseling will delight any Christian. They are highly commended for their various services to God and humanity, and they are role models to today’s young Christian women. These women showed unique love in their services and displayed exemplary character. Some of them did not stop at pastoral care and counseling; they went further by enlarging Churches dominated by male leadership and, after that, started women’s organizations and their ministries.

 Women Of the Old Testament:

Among the women of the Old Testament are these six celebrated women whose contributions to pastoral care and counseling were evident in the Scriptures. They are Eve, Sarah, Miriam, Rahab, Deborah, and the widow of Zarephath. They existed before the birth of Jesus Christ, but they all believed in God and rendered services to God and Mankind.


The Hebrew is Chawwah; the name denotes ‘life.’ Eve was created as a helpmeet for Adam. Genesis 2: 18 says The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.” From this Scripture passage, we can see that Eve was created to be a helper and companion for Adam. Eve was the first woman involved in pastoral care and counseling. Her contribution was both positive and negative.

The negative aspect of her counsel led to the fall of man. Her susceptibility to Satan’s deceit convinced her to eat the forbidden fruit and give the same to her husband. This mistake brought sin into the world. Despite this mistake, she stood by her husband, cared for his needs, and became the mother of life. Her role in the life of Adam and her sons included assisting them in their various endeavors, feeding and comforting Adam, especially when Cain killed Abel, and loving and encouraging her husband and sons. Without Eve’s support, Adam would have found it difficult to reach his actualization level after being driven from the garden of Eden.


Sarah, known initially as Sarai, was the wife of Abraham. A faithful and loving companion of Abraham though barren and childless initially (Gen. 11: 29-30). The fulfillment of the divine promise rests with Abraham and Sarah. Sarah’s change of name, unique among the women in the Bible, underlines this point (Gen. 17:15). Sarah supported, counseled, and cared for her husband and the entire household, making her become the matriarch of Faith. Christian wives, in order to avoid anti-Christian sentiment, are urged not to antagonize their non-Christian husbands (1 Peter 3: 1-4) but to be like Sarah and accept their husband’s authority (I Pet. 3:6).

Despite her long-time barrenness, she never stopped her pastoral care and counseling to her husband and the household members. She was a model for Christian perseverance under challenging circumstances. When Sarah moved from barrenness to fertility, she also moved from the margins to a position of significance. Her transformation is the basis for her contribution to the theology of the Scripture, in which she becomes a paradigm for divine intervention (Isaiah 51: 2-3), Christian freedom (Galatians 4:21 – 5:1), and virtuous perseverance.


Miriam was the sister of Moses and Aaron. She watched Moses in the ark of bulrushes (Exodus 2:4ff). Miriam, a prophetess, led the women in the song of victory at the Red Sea (Exodus 15:20f). In Micah 6:4, she is spoken of along with Moses and Aaron as a leader of the people. She contributed positively to pastoral care and counseling in the course of the wilderness wanderings of the Israelites.


Rahab was a prostitute in Canaan. Joshua sent two spies to assess the city before the Israelite invasion (Joshua 2). The two visited Rahab’s house, a local brothel, perhaps to be anonymous. However, the presence of strangers in Jericho, where a huge contingent of foreign nomads was camped nearby, aroused the interest of the local department of state (Josh. 2: 2-3), and the two men were forced to hide and flee. From an enemy state, Rahab risked her own life to protect the spies from discovery and aid their escape.

Her conviction was more potent than her fear of reprisal from the local authorities, so she seized the opportunity and acted to protect herself and her family from imminent death. She hid the spies beneath the flax on the roof as a mark of good Faith and ensured that the men swore an oath to protect her and her immediate family before she allowed them to go. Rahab’s action was attributed to Faith in the Scriptures (Hebrews 11: 31). It was even interpreted as righteousness (James 2:25). Rahab was placed alongside Abraham as a critical example of the significance of righteous actions in the life of the believer. Rahab then provides an illustration of God’s interest and concern for those outside the covenant community. [1]


Deborah achieved greatness as a judge, military leader, and poet (Judges 4 and 5). Deborah was a good mediator, adviser, counselor, and planner. She had all the leadership skills and a unique relationship with God. Deborah stands tall in history as a remarkable woman who contributed immensely to pastoral care and counseling. Whenever praise came her way, she gave God credit. Deborah’s life challenges women in many ways. She reminds the women of the need to be available to God and others. She was the fourth and only female judge of Israel. When called upon to lead, she could plan, direct and delegate. She was well known for her prophetic power and was a good writer of songs. She was married to Lappidoth and a contemporary of Barak, Jael, Jabin of Hazor, and Sisera.

The Widow Of Zarephath

This widow contributed to pastoral care to the extent that she was mentioned in 1 Kings 17. She was the epitome of service and endurance.

  •   [1] New Dictionary of Biblical Theology

The Great Commission (The Mandate): Matthew 28: 16 – 20: Final Part Two

The Great Commission (The Mandate): Matthew 28: 16 – 20: Final Part Two

 The Task of The Church:

The Task of the Church will be addressed from the perspectives of some writers and evangelists that I share similar theology. Christian Schwarz’s concept of the Church is based on the divine principle of Creation and focuses on God, who created the Church to sustain the health and growth of the Church, like in organic farming where the root produces fruit. Schwarz formulated his concept using God’s growth automatisms. Schwarz centers on the Eight Quality Characteristics: Leadership, Ministry, Spirituality, Structures, Worship Service, Small Groups, Evangelism, and Relationships, and the three Paradigms: Biotic Principles, Spiritualizing, and Technocratic. He considered the ‘overestimated’ significance of Institutions, Programs, & Methods of the Technocratic Paradigm. Also, the ‘underestimated’ significance of Institutions, Programs, Methods, etc., of the Spiritualistic Paradigm and the Theological approach underlying the natural Church development in the Biotic Paradigm. He surmised that ‘the correlation between growth and the eight quality characteristics is statistically significant.’ 

Charles Van Engen is more concerned about the local ecclesia regarding the missionary people. He targets the leadership of the ecclesia and sounds very passionate about the Biblical and Theological issues that are fundamental to the task God has given the Church. Van Engen’s theological purpose is to build missionary congregations in the world. Charles Van Engen’s ecclesiology is ‘the anticipatory sign of the Rule of the King’, and its mission is to spread knowledge of the Rule of the King. He sees the Church as a unique body of Jesus Christ that is divine and human. So the human and divine aspects of the Church’s nature must be unified to arrive at a true understanding of the ecclesial mission. The congregations must intentionally live as the missionary person of God to make the Church become what it is truly by Faith. Van Engen’s ideas are biblical as it agrees with the Great Commission and Paul’s missionary ecclesiology in his letter to the Ephesians. Paul, in his writing, saw the local Church as an organism that should continually grow in the missional expression of its essential nature in the world. Engen’s ecclesiology is in Unity (Eph. 4:1-16); in Holiness (Eph. 1: 1-14, 4:17 – 5:5, 5:6 – 6:20) and in Mission to All (Eph. 1:15-23, 2: 1-22, 3: 1-13). In Van Engen’s missionary perspective, there are four attributes of a church that he described as gifts and tasks of the Church’s life with Jesus Christ at the center. They are:

  1. Unity
  • Gathering to Jesus (Col. 1: 28)
  • Invitation to the great feast (Matt. 22: 2-10)
  • Incorporating Faith
  • Establishing an organic cohesion (Eph 1: 9-10)
  • Becoming “One” (John 17)
  • Building up Christ’s body (Eph. 4: 11-13)
  • Preparing for the Lord’s return (Rev 19:7)
  • Preserving Unity in a bond of Peace (Eph. 4:3)
  1. Apostolicity ((Proclaiming)
  • Teaching & Discipling
  • Receiving instructions (1 Cor. 11: 23)
  • Theologizing
  • Witnessing & Mobilizing
  • Sending out (Acts 13: 1-3)
  1. Holiness (Sanctifying)
  • Forgiving & Healing
  • Ministering as a nation of Priests (1 Peter 2: 4-5)
  • Relating to God in holiness & Relating to others in Purity
  • Reflecting the presence of the Holy Spirit by serving compassionately
  • Conforming to the pattern of Beatitudes (Matt 5: 3-12)
  1. Catholicity (Reconciling)
  • Becoming world Christians (Phil. 2: 1-11)
  • Accepting others (Rom 12: 3-10)
  • Acting as Ambassadors (2 Cor. 5: 11-21)
  • Bridging (Networking) & Giving oneself to the world
  • Breaking down barriers & Loving (1 Cor. 13)

John Wesley, another great evangelist, sets out his methods to accomplish the command of Jesus Christ in the Great Commission with the resources given by Jesus Christ. Wesley’s methodology emerged by borrowing ideas from a wide range of diverse models, and the final product was a refined synthesis of proven techniques. Wesley’s awareness of the Assurance of God’s favor became the cornerstone of his methods.

Lorrie Sanny, the Chairman of the Board of the Navigators, defines Evangelism as “taking a good look at Jesus Christ and then telling someone what you saw” this John Wesley did in his evangelical approach by:

  • Making people recognize their need for Jesus Christ and
  • Understand how to receive Jesus into their lives.

Evangelism, to John Wesley, was both an act and a process. He did not just make converts but trained and mobilized them to share the good news effectively. Wesley’s revolution in Evangelism illustrates that long-lasting Spiritual transformation is not the product of dynamic preaching or correct doctrine but comes only through serious disciple-building in keeping with Christ’s Great Commission. Wesley used three distinct modes for Evangelism and disciple-making in early Methodism. 

The Modes are:

  • The Society Meetings that aimed at cognitive instruction
  • The class meetings that provided an environment for behavioral changes
  • The Band that facilitated effective redirection.

“Metaphorically, the Society Meetings aimed for the head, the Class meeting for the hands and the band for the heart.” (Quote from D. Michael Henderson as written on page 112 of John Wesley’s Class meeting).

The three modes were built into the early Methodism and complemented each other. Wesley used them as tools for Evangelism and disciple-making. Field preaching was also not neglected. It was used for effective Evangelism in increasing the numbers of participants in the modes and to spread Scriptural holiness throughout the Land. Wesley directed the poor and the oppressed people in the community to the Scriptures. He pointed them to Biblical examples of people who had experienced a powerful, loving, and personal God at work. These are the People who believed in the ‘living faith.’ Wesley’s Methods of disciple-making are still potent today as they were in his days.

The learning progress of the disciples was to be demonstrated in their daily lives. Wesley defined a mark of a mature Christian as “consistent obedience to God, in which the new relationship of justifying faith is no longer interrupted by a wayward disposition but firmly grounded in a service of love.” His modes provided sequential order, with each phase building on the previous one, and this is the actual process of discipleship development Today. The Society Meetings of the Methodist systems are like what is today known as covenant groups called Come and See phase. Wesley’s Class Meetings represent the basic accountability group known as come and follow me phase of Today. Wesley’s Band represents the ongoing accountability group of “Be with me,” while Wesley’s Select group is the ‘Remain in me.’

Wesley’s principles are more potent Today for a disciple-making Church to grow spiritually and numerically. The Ministry in Africa Today has mature churches that are diverse and better articulated than at the time of John Wesley. Idol worshipping was more prevalent at that time. Missionaries like John Wesley brought the Christian religion to Africa through their evangelical outreach. Wesley’s timeless discipleship principles were to define the end product and develop the recipe at each phase of the process. That has helped disciple-making churches to:

  • Help newcomers understand the ministry they need when they join.
  • Help Ministry leaders understand precisely their objective in discipling persons.
  • Articulate church programs with “all the things” on their ladder.

How It Affects Our Theologizing:

Theology is an instrument of sound evangelical strategy. The word of God is the revelation, while theology is the indispensable support of the revealed word of God. Our theologizing, therefore, must be the precise map of the knowledge of God for non-Christians. After Christ determined the pattern and end of all theology for his Church, the glorified Christ commissioned His Church to disciple the nations, baptizing and teaching his followers to obey everything that he had commanded them.

The Great Commission then places upon the church specific intellectual demands. There is the evangelistic demand to contextualize, without compromise, the gospel proclamation to meet the needs of every generation and culture. There is the didactic demand to correlate the manifold data of Scripture in our minds, and to apply this knowledge to all phases of our thinking and conduct. And there is the apologetic demand to justify Christianity’s existence as God’s revealed religion and to protect its message from adulteration and distortion (Tit. 1:9). Theology has risen in the life of the Church in response to these concrete demands of the Great Commission. The theological enterprise serves the Great Commission as it seeks to explain logically and coherently for men everywhere the truth God has revealed in the Holy Scripture about himself and the world He has created. 

The ways it affects our theologizing then include but are not limited to the followings:

  1. Negligent of Reflection

Reflection, at times, could be seen as an adversary of Gospel proclamation. According to Tite Tienou, this perception is a theological decision; African Christians should refrain from making the Gospel Kerygmatically Universal.

  1. Denominational and Doctrinal Fragmentation

The various denominations and different theological doctrines upheld by African Christians prevent evangelicals from working together on a standard theological plan to advance the Great Commission.

  1. Theological Failure

Our theological failures arise from the following:

  • The silence in allowing others to formulate African theology without Africans’ contributions. This situation is evident by the lack of evangelical presence in recent publications on African theology.
  • Spiritual immaturity: even though Africa is the fastest-growing Church in the world, it could also be said to have the fastest-declining Church due to a lack of Spiritual depth, Education, and Knowledge. This Spiritual immaturity has dramatically impacted the fulfillment of the Great Commission.
  1. Lack of Spiritual Commitment and
  2. Lack of contextualization throwing away the African Culture.


The justification of theologizing as an intellectual discipline could be adduced by five reasons, namely:

  1. Christ’s theological method.
  2. Christ’s mandate to his Church is to disciple and to teach.
  3. The apostolic model.
  4. The apostolically approved example and activity of the New Testament church and
  5. The nature of the Holy Scriptures.

The Church must remain committed to the theological task for these five reasons. And it can do so with the full assurance that its labors will not be a waste of time and energy. No intellectual pursuit will ultimately prove to be more rewarding than acquiring knowledge of God and his ways and works. Indeed, the scriptural mandate for the theological enterprise is so clear that the Church’s primary question should not be whether it should engage itself in theology; the Lord of the Church and his apostles leave it no other option. The Church must be engaged in theology to be faithful to him. Instead, what should be of more significant concern to the Church is whether, in its engagement in theology, it is listening as intently and submissively as it should to its Lord’s voice speaking to His Church in Holy Scripture. And, most significantly, the command in the Great Commission! 

In summary, the Church’s primary concern should not be whether to engage in theology but Is its theology correct? Is it orthodox? Or perhaps better: Is it biblical? How the theological task is described will be determined by the ‘Sitz im Leben’ of the individual theologian, governed by his academic qualifications, socio, economic, historical, learning, and theological situation.

The compact Tasks of Christ’s Church therefore are:

  1. To relate Christian Values to the Central Values, and
  2. Obligation to involve in the Political and Social Problems of Contemporary Life.


The Great Commission (The Mandate): Matthew 28: 16 – 20: Part One

The Great Commission (The Mandate): Matthew 28: 16 – 20: Part One

Then the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had told them to go. When they saw him, they worshipped him; but some doubted. Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in Heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely, I am with you always to the very end of the age.” (NIV).


In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to His disciples that they spread the Faith to all the nations of the world. It has become a tenet in Christian theology emphasizing Mission Work and Evangelism, and it is the primary basis for Christian missionary activity. The most familiar version of the Great Commission is recorded in the Gospel of Matthew28:16-20: Other versions of the Great Commission are found in Mark 16:14-18; Luke 24:44-49; Acts 1:4-8; and John 20:19-23. All passages record words of Christ spoken after His resurrection. 

Matthew, alone among the four Gospels, uses the word ‘Church’ (ekklesia). The word ecclesia (ekklesia) is usually tr in its Christian application. Church was applied in ordinary Greek usage to the duly constituted gathering of the citizens in a self-governing city, and it is also used in the Ephesians’ assembly in Acts 19:39.[1] It is found twice in the New Testament (Acts 7:38; Heb. 2:12).

The early Church was called ‘Jesus Movement. The Church can then be defined as an assembly of believers in Jesus Christ. By AD 60, the word ‘Church’ was widely accepted by all believers in Jesus as a proper name for themselves (I Peter 4:16). Christian Theology is defined in terms of Theos and Logos; the New Testament is Christocentric and Particularistic. [2] 

Colossians 1: 18 affirms the headship of Jesus Christ “And He is the head of the body, the church; He is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead so that in everything He might have the supremacy.” T. Tshibangu describes theology as ‘the science dealing with humanity’s divine destiny. This science, to him, is grounded on God’s revelation in Christ, and it is also based on ‘deep, thoroughgoing knowledge of human beings and the factors that condition their lives. [3]

Our theologizing is principally concerned with the theological message of the passage of Matt 28:18-20. It seeks to understand the text concerning the whole. To achieve this, we must work with the mutual interaction of the literary, historical, and theological dimensions of the various corpora and with these interrelationships within the whole Canon of New Testament Scripture. It will be the theological interpretation of the passage in and for the Church. It will proceed with historical and literary sensitivity and seeks to analyze and synthesize Jesus’ command and His relations to the world on its terms, maintaining sight of the Scripture’s overarching narrative and Christocentric focus.

Our theologizing will best be judged by examining what it produces. The only three eternal things are God, His Word, and the souls of men and women; these three eternal things are best stated for us in a command that Jesus gave to His disciples. [4] Today, we call that command the Great Commission. The Great Commission demands that we disciple men and women of all nations. We disciple by teaching all that Jesus commands, which is found in the Word of God. The best medium is the individual member of the Church of Christ in active participation in Evangelism. The Great Commission is for the evangelicals; those Christians committed to the command of Jesus Christ as their doctrinal rule of Faith and practice. The Great Commission is not being fulfilled; the nations are not being discipled. What exactly is then the task of the Church? Whose responsibility is the Great Commission? We may say that it is the Church’s responsibility; however, when we refer to the Church, it is not the building but the people (the believers). Jesus did not only give the eleven Apostles the responsibility to reach all nations; He also gave them the power and resources necessary to get the job done. That power and resources are still as potent for us Today as it was for the eleven Apostles; all we need to do is harness them for the glory of God.

The Out-Line:

Jesus’ Appearance To The Eleven Disciples (28: 16 – 20):

  1. The Mountain (28:16); They meet on a mountain in Galilee as he had instructed them.
  2. The mixed reaction (28:17); some worship him, while others still doubt.
  3. The mandate (28: 18-20).
  4. Jesus’ Authority – 28:18.
  5. Jesus’ Assignment – 28: 19 – 20a.
  6. Jesus’ Assurance – 28: 20b

The Passage and Interpretation:

Jesus met with His disciples, on top of a mountain, after His resurrection. Matthew indicated that some of the disciples doubted, but Jesus told them, ‘He has all the power in Heaven and on earth. Based on this authority, the disciples were to go and make disciples by teaching others all Jesus had commanded. It is interesting and noteworthy that Jesus started with the Resource (Power) to show the importance of the objective.

The commission from Jesus indicates that His disciples must go, teach, and baptize. Although the command was initially given directly only to Christ’s eleven Apostles, Christian theology has interpreted the commission as a directive to all Christians of every time and place, mainly because it seems to be a restatement of the last part of God’s covenant with Abraham in Genesis 12:3. Commentators often contrast the Great Commission with the earlier Limited Commission of Matthew 10:5-42, in which they were to restrict their mission to their fellow Jews, to whom Jesus referred as “the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matthew 15:24). Textual critics note that the portion of Mark 16 which records the commission is not found in two of the oldest Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus.[5] The response generally given is that this is immaterial, as essentially the same thing is quoted as having been said by Jesus in at least three other New Testament passages, and most especially the passage in question was regarded as part of the Canon of the Scriptures throughout most of Church history.

The Resources:

All authority in Heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go- 

The English word “therefore” is a catalyst and a re-winder. When in a sentence, it means to stop and examine the statement before it. What is about to be said will be based on that statement. In commanding the disciples to reach the world, Jesus spoke of a resource. The job would never have been done if the disciples depended on their resources. Jesus affirmed to them that their needs in Heaven or earth to get the job done would be met as He has the authority and the power to give them. Based on this resource, Jesus told the disciples, ‘Go therefore and make disciples of all nations. Nations mean the People, the Land, and the Governance. Jesus started with a resource and ended the statement with another resource “Surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.” It indicates the certainty of Jesus’ presence till eternity, so we must act and trust that He is with us to do the task. Jesus’ promise to be with us unto the end of age means He will provide whatever our needs are. The Church is thereby thoroughly equipped to carry out the mandate effectively.

The Objective:

Jesus placed between the two resource statements the objective:

Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you.

The task given by Jesus Christ is both ‘Evangelism’ and ‘Discipleship.’ Colossians 1:28-29 says, “We proclaim him, admonishing and teaching everyone with all wisdom, so that we may present everyone perfect in Christ. To this end, I struggle with all his energy, which so powerfully works in me.” The word ‘perfect’ in this passage means Spiritual maturity or complete without flaw. The Church’s task is to baptize converts and bring them into spiritual maturity as disciples. Christ’s message is for all Christians; even Paul and Timothy, wherever they went, brought the Good News to all who would listen. This teaching is that Salvation is available through Faith in Christ.

To be saved, the issue of sin must be addressed; it is a reality that must be decided. Baptism means ‘being washed.’ All human sins were washed away and passed onto Jesus Christ through His baptism. Jesus, therefore, employs the disciples after His resurrection to obey this example. And baptize new converts, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, into the new Faith and the new will of God. Apostle Paul states the essence of baptism in the book of Romans 6: 2 – 11 “By no means! We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer? Or don’t you know that all of us baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?

Therefore, we were buried with him through baptism into death so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life. If we are united with him in his death, we will certainly be united with him in his resurrection. For we know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves to sin – because anyone who has died has been freed from sin. Now, if we die with Christ, we believe we will also live with him. We know that since Christ was raised from the dead, he cannot die again; death no longer has mastery over him. The death he died to sin once and for all, but the life he lives, he lives to God. In the same way, count yourselves dead to sin but alive to God in Christ Jesus.” It becomes imperative to baptize the new converts into Christianity as Jesus commanded.

 Jesus said to make disciples; this is the passage’s main idea where the emphasis is focused. “Jesus said, teach them to obey everything I have commanded” the Church’s task is to teach people not just to observe but to obey. To obey is to apply the principle and enable the principle to become a reality. There is a difference between making disciples and making converts. When Peter saw three thousand converts at Pentecost, he knew his job had just started, Acts 2:41; the next verse, 42, says the converts continued steadfastly in the apostles’ doctrine. The Apostles’ doctrine was all the things Jesus had taught them. Every person born into God’s family and a member of the Church of Christ is to multiply. Something is wrong with a Christian not multiplying. A Christian is to lead others to Christ and disciple them. Working for Christ is different from producing for Christ. The devil’s great trick is to stop the gospel’s spread if he can before it gets started or incapacitate a believer of Spiritual reproduction by remaining a spiritual babe.

A Worldwide Ministry:

Jesus Christ wants the Church involved in a worldwide vision as well as a worldwide ministry. Each Christian is to contribute to this worldwide ministry. The ways to execute this include:

  • Going Personally: Missionaries belong to this group; God has called many to labor in foreign fields.
  • Through physical or spiritual children: God may call someone close to us, like our physical or spiritual children, to serve in foreign missions. These people are an extension of our life and members of the Church of Christ.
  • Through Prayers: Prayer is the Master Key; every time we bow our heads and hearts to God, we have the capability of reaching around the world. Our intercessory prayers can enter into the labors of missionaries; therefore, we need to intercede for fellow Christians, especially the missionaries, regularly.
  • Through Finances: Nothing belongs to us. All things come from the Lord, and of His own do we give Him. When we are blessed with material wealth, it is an avenue to invest in spiritual labor; one can enter into the labors of any missionary through generous giving.
  • Through Vocation: Our Skills and Talents were given to us by God to use ourselves and others. There are no Skills possessed by a Christian that is not needed in God’s vineyard and missionary organization; it is then imperative to enter the mission labors through our Vocation.

**To be finalized tomorrow, Sunday, October 23, 2022.


  •   [1] James Hasting, Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible, (USA: Hendrickson Publishers,2001), p.138
  • [2] Dr. Charles E. Osume in an oral lecture on June 26, 2007
  • [3] John Parratt, (Editor) SPCK International Study Guide 23 (Advanced): A reader in African Christian Theology (Kaduna: Baraka Press and Publishers Ltd., 2004), p.29
  • [4] David L. Dawson, Equipping The Saints Book One-A (Texas: Thomas Nelson Inc., Publishers, 1984), p.30
  • [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Commission.